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Managing User Authentication and Access Control with AWS Cognito

May 17, 2023
Written by
Rajesh Kanumuru

Table of Contents:

  1. Introduction
  2. What is AWS Cognito?
  3. Why Use AWS Cognito?
  4. Conclusion


According to Verizon research, stolen credentials were responsible for nearly 50% of all security breaches worldwide. Credentials were hackers' preferred data to steal since they allowed them to move uninterrupted within a network.

In today's digital age, managing user authentication and access control has become essential to developing any application or service. The need for secure and scalable user management solutions has never been greater. That's where AWS Cognito comes in. 

As a user identity and data synchronization service provided by AWS, Cognito offers developers a way to easily manage user identities and access control in their mobile and web applications. 

Product managers often hate implementing AWS Cognito because while it is a powerful tool, its complexity can make it challenging to use effectively.

In this blog, we'll dive into the basics of Cognito, its features, and how it can help product engineers and developers manage user authentication and access control.

What is AWS Cognito?

AWS Cognito is a user authentication and management service for applications that enable developers to create, manage, and maintain user identities while controlling access to application resources. It supports two types of user authentication: 

  1. User pools
  2. Identity pools

User Pools

User pools allow developers to manage user registration, authentication, and account recovery. They provide a user directory that can scale to hundreds of millions of users and allow for custom and multi-factor authentication workflows. 

User pools also integrate with AWS Lambda to trigger custom actions, such as sending email notifications or updating user data in other AWS services.

Identity Pools

Identity pools allow developers to grant temporary, limited access to AWS resources to users who authenticate with external identity providers, such as social media platforms or enterprise identity systems. This enables users to access AWS resources with their existing credentials while developers can maintain control over access to their resources.

Both user pools and identity pools provide a secure and scalable way to manage user identities and access control in your application. With Cognito, developers can focus on building their applications while leaving user authentication and management to AWS.

Why Use AWS Cognito?

Cognito integrates with other AWS services such as AppSync, Lambda, and S3. It has features like tracking user sign-in and sign-up events, triggering workflows and Lambda functions, and storing user profiles and preferences. It also supports industry-standard security measures like MFA and custom password policies and encryption for data in transit and at rest. Furthermore, Cognito can be customized to benefit the user experience.

Here are some reasons to consider AWS Cognito:


Another key feature of Amazon Web Service’s Cognito is its support for federated access control with social identity providers like Facebook and Google. This allows users to sign in with their existing social media credentials, reducing the friction of sign-up and sign-in for end users.

Cognito also supports integration with custom identity providers, allowing developers to use their authentication systems alongside Cognito. This is useful for organizations with existing identity solutions who want to integrate them with their AWS environment.

Security Features

Security is always a top concern regarding user authentication, and AWS Cognito offers several features to help keep your application secure. For example, Cognito supports industry-standard security measures like multi-factor authentication (MFA) and custom password policies.

You can configure password policies to enforce complexity requirements and expiration dates and set up MFA to require a secondary authentication factor such as a one-time code or biometric verification.

Cognito also supports encryption for data in transit and at rest, helping to ensure that sensitive user data is protected from unauthorized access.


One of the biggest advantages of AWS Cognito is its flexibility and customizability. With Cognito, developers can tailor the authentication flow to meet their needs. This can include adding custom logic through AWS Lambda triggers or customizing the user experience by modifying email and SMS messages.

For example, you can use a Lambda function to verify a user's email address before allowing them to log in or to trigger an action when a user signs up. You can also customize the look and feel of the authentication pages to match your branding, giving your users a consistent experience across your entire application.

User Pools

User pools are directories within AWS Cognito that contain user accounts for your application. They provide a secure and scalable way to manage user authentication, sign-up, and sign-in, allowing you to store user profile information like usernames, passwords, and email addresses.

One of the advantages of user pools is how scalable they are across your cloud infrastructure. They simplify the process of user authentication, management, and storage by making it centralized and user-friendly.

Users and Groups within User Pools

Users are individuals who have signed up for an account in the user pool, while groups are collections of users who share the same roles or permissions within the user pool. You can manage access control or assign specific privileges to different sets of users via groups.

This can be useful for assigning specific roles or permissions to users based on their needs or job function. For example, you might create a group for administrators with access to all application parts, while regular users might have more limited access.

Identity Pools

Identity pools allow developers to add AuthN and AuthZ to their apps. They provide a unique identifier for each end-user called Cognito Identity, which can be used to access other AWS services like S3, Lambda, etc.

Identity pools are intermediaries between User Pools (which store and verify user credentials) and other AWS services. When a user logs in through the User Pool, the Identity Pool retrieves a temporary limited-privilege AWS credential. With these credentials, users can access any AWS resources they have permission for.

Identity Pools also support fine-grained access controls through IAM roles and policies. Additionally, they integrate with Amazon Pinpoint to support tracking and send push notifications to users.


AWS Cognito has become a go-to solution for managing user authentication and data synchronization for developers and product engineers. Its user-friendly interface, easy integration with other AWS services, and versatility have made it a popular choice for businesses of all sizes.

With Cognito's support for multiple types of user authentication, developers can choose the authentication method that best suits their needs. The ability to customize user pools and identity pools and configure advanced security features like multi-factor authentication and access control policies make Cognito a flexible solution for a wide range of applications.

AWS Cognito is a reliable and powerful solution for managing modern applications' user authentication and access control. With its features and capabilities, Cognito can help businesses ensure the security and privacy of their users while providing a seamless user experience.

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  1. Basics of Cognito
  2. User Pools
  3. Users, Groups
  4. Identity Pools

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Source for article
Rajesh Kanumuru

Rajesh Kanumuru

Rajesh Kanumuru works at we45 as a Cloud Security Lead. Rajesh is a builder and breaker of Cloud applications. He has created some pioneering works in the area of Cloud Security. He is actively researching the effects of emerging technologies on cloud security. Since 2020, Rajesh has mostly been involved with research, development and building solutions around we45 and AppSecEngineer's training offerings. He consults with organizations to help them implement Cloud Security successfully. Rajesh has co-authored and trained a course on Purple Team AWS that was delivered by we45 at BlackHat USA. When AFK, he can be found on the cricket pitch.

Rajesh Kanumuru


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